Koilonychia is a disease that affects the nails. We all have good nsils and eomen are so passionate about growing nails. If something is going to affect it then it will mentally affect them in all ways. When we take a closer look on the disease it has been founded that we need to be clean with our nails. The disease affects nails and gradually moves to finger. Due to this condition the curvature of the nails which is generally convex becomes concave. Such is the case that a drop of water when placed on the nail does not flow off but stays in the concave depression. This leads to thin brittle nails. In many cases it can be indicative of some other disease. Koilonychia can be congenital (familial), acquired, occupational or idiopathic.
Different Koilonychia Causes
The congenital or heriditary case of Koilonychia occurs due to autosomal dominant condition known as the Nail-Patella Syndrome that may be characterized by dislocated knee caps, renal abnormalities and glaucoma. However the above complications may not be present in all cases. The pathogenesis can be attributed to
- Structural stress during keratinization (a stage in nail formation).
- Lower angulation of distal nail matrix compared to proximal one. The nail matrix produces the nails and hence a change in their orientation affects nail growth.
- Anoxia (lack of oxygen supply) and atrophy of nail matrix.
Acquired Koilonychia occurs due to iron deficiency and may or may not be accompanied by anemia. This can owe its origin to numerous anomalies such as malnutrition, gastrointestinal blood loss, worms, gastrointestinal malignancy, celiac disease and Plummer Vinson syndrome. In addition, hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in regions of higher altitude can lead to increased erythropoiesis, leading to greater consumption of iron and thereby atrophies the nail bed. In certain interesting cases, the contrary condition of Hemochromatosis (Iron overload) is found to be a cause of Koilonychia.
In case of occupational Koilonychia, trauma due to handling of petroleum solvents can cause nail concavity. This condition has also been found in case of hair dressers due to chemical toxicity. In idiopathic Koilonychia, there is no certain cause of the disease and any abnormality associated with connective tissue changes can affect the nails.
The nails in certain systemic conditions or due to trauma can become split and raised from the nail bed causing fungal infections.
Koilonychia Treatment & Precautions
- Checking out for iron deficiency and taking regular iron supplements half an hour before meals.
- Using prescribed medications for nail infections.
- Ayurveda suggests a remedy: Extract aloe vera juice, grind with turmeric and mix castor oil. Apply the lukewarm solution in the affected area.
- Observe safety procedures in handling toxic substances and avoid using nail polishes.
- Avoid taking iron supplements with coffee or green tea since it slows iron absorption.